What is a quantum computer? and how does it works .

What is a quantum computer?

 Quantum computer is an advanced computer technology, it is based on quantum bits i.e. Qubits.  Digital electronic computers are based on the technology of bits, but quantum computers perform calculations, store data and analyze data through qubits.  It is because of qubits that quantum computers are much more powerful than digital computers.

 An electronic computer has only two binary digits, 1 and 0, but in the qubits of a quantum computer, either (0 or 1) or a combination of (0 and 1) can exist at the same time.  The bits of a digital computer also have only two binary digits (0 and 1), but bits are either one or two (1 or 0) all at once.

What is Quantum Supremacy?

 Quantum Supremacy is a scientific concept that proves the power and efficiency of quantum computing.  This means that a quantum computer can solve a program with such speed and accuracy that it would be impossible for classical computers to do so.

 It is a metric that shows the characteristics of quantum computers and measures the quality of their use.

How does a quantum computer work?

 The way quantum computers work is quite unique.  It uses the laws and principles of quantum physics.  Let me give you a simple explanation –

 Qubit: The basic unit of a quantum computer is called a qubit.  It is represented as a qubit.  The qubit can be in a state of superposition and entanglement instead of a program bit (0 or 1).

 Superposition: Through superposition, the qubit can communicate multiple states at the same time.  That is, it can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously.  When we read the state of the qubit, we get the probability of a number determined in one of its contexts.

 Entanglement: Entanglement is a special property through which two qubits can become simultaneously associated.  When the state of one qubit changes, the other qubit may also be affected.

 Quantum computers use these principles to complete multiple tasks in parallel.  It is extremely fast and powerful compared to ordinary computers.

Use of quantum computers :

 At present, quantum computer has not been fully developed and it has not been prepared for the common user, hence quantum computer is being used in very few places, whose names are as follows –

 in the field of meteorology

 in space science

 in the field of secure communications

Benefits of quantum computing :

 There are many benefits of quantum computing, here are some of the main benefits –

 High-speed solutions – Quantum computers offer much higher speeds than classical computers.  Because of the multiple states of quantum bits, quantum computers are able to solve difficult problems faster.

 Advanced cryptography – Quantum computers can be used to break cryptographic algorithms.  This means that quantum computing provides a challenge in the field of security, but it can also be used to develop new and secure cryptographic protocols.

 Parallelization of processes – In quantum computing, problems can be parallelized, allowing large and complex processes to be solved faster, this means that a quantum computer can operate processes in the same amount of time as classical computing.  It is impossible for.

 Special Advancements – Many other advancements are also possible with the use of quantum computers, these may include – highly active and precise robotics, discovery of new drugs and products, control and solution of environmental pollution problems, advancements in integrated science.

Who started quantum computing?

 Quantum computing was introduced by Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin.  Both of them were physicists who came up with an idea in the 1980s to build a computer based on the existing principles of quantum mechanics.  After this other scientists studied and researched in this field and tried to bring quantum computing into reality.

 Quantum computing is considered a revolutionary technology in the world of science, in which quantum bits i.e. qubits are used, which have significantly more capacity than classical bits.

Why do we need quantum computers?

 We need quantum computers because they can help us solve some problems that are not possible with classical computers.  This may enable the development of problems such as strong cryptography.  Apart from this, quantum computing is also useful for powerful analysis, which can help us solve complex issues in the future.

 quantum computer in india :

 The Indian government has allocated Rs 8,000 crore for quantum technologies and applications to boost the development of quantum computing and cryptography in its 2021 budget.  Also in December 2021, a quantum computing laboratory has been established by the Indian Army at a military engineering institute in ‘Mhow’, a town located in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh.

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